when I was working at EPTRI I was asked to go collect some documents from DiRECTORATE OF HEALTH..As usual I got out without calling them first.... Something I am very careful about these days... When I reached there I was asked to wait for four hours thats when my driver suggested about a museum,Salaar Jung museum near Koti. Thats where I saw her.... Rebbeca... The italian beauty sculpted in almost six foot single piece marble.. She is something I could never be... But its not jealousy but a deep sense of sadness... Legend says she was sculpted by her brother's friend who was present when her fiance saw her for first time...
She was so shy that she wore a veil when she came out to meet her fiance... She had kept her face meekly down never meeting their eyes... Obviously it not her fiance who got entralled..
The sculptor should have been in love with her .... No other man could have captured essence of that moment otherwise...
The sculpture of Veiled Rebecca made by Giovanni Maria Benzoni around the time 1809-1873.
Thursday, January 13, 2011
Fin rot is mainly due to Bacteria.Bacteria can be categorized into ‘friendly’ and ‘unfriendly’. Most of the bacteria found in aquariums are harmless, but others are potentially harmful in high densities. Friendly bacteria include the scavenging, decomposing bacteria digesting uneaten fish food, plant matter, dead algae, and basically everything that consist of organic matter. The nitrifiers also known as "beneficial" bacteria convert ammonia (resulting from bacterial activity, fish waste etc.) into the less toxic compounds of nitrite and nitrate. On rare occasions, denitrifying bacteria can settle in oxygen free areas and transform nitrate into oxygen and nitrogen gas.‘Unfriendly’ bacteria are summarized as pathogenic, disease causing bacteria.
Pathogenic bacteria are opportunistic, meaning as long as the fish is healthy, it will not be bothered. Some bacteria are present at all times and in a constant fight with the fish’s immune system. A strong immune system allows the survival of the bacteria strain without harming the fish.Bacterial infections are secondary diseases; they can only prevail if the fish is weakened under stressful conditions (high temperature or else very low temperature, ammonia, nitrite, high organics, low dissolved oxygen etc.), resulting in rapidly multiplying pathogens. A stressed and weak fish with pathogenic bacteria present results in a bacterial infection, which will be fatal if left untreated.
Any time a bacterial disease occurs, adjustments in the aquatic environment need to be made in order to lessen and to eliminate stress causing factors to the fish. Bacterial diseases should be treated with antibiotics, preferably in a quarantine/hospital tank so that the good bacteria colony collection in the tanks will not be harmed and the other healthy fishes would not get immune to the antibiotic. Antibiotics function by slowing down the pathogens thus increasing the immune systems efficiency. Nevertheless, it is the immune system that cures the disease not the antibiotic. To achieve a slowdown, antibiotics interfere with the reproductive mechanisms of the pathogen by interrupting its lifecycle. Vets recommend usage of different antibiotic of different composition each time so that the fishes do not get immune to antibiotic (this happens mainly in case of large aquaculture.)
The two relating terms are antibiotics and antibacterial. While antibiotics are naturally produced by a microorganism for killing another microorganism, antibacterial substances such as sulfa and furans are manufactured artificially.
To apply the correct antibiotic to a given pathogen the pathogens cell wall is decisive for the determination. Pathogens have either a thin or a thick cell wall. The method to differentiate between the two main types of bacterial cell walls is called the "Gram Staining Technique". In which there is the "gram positive" and the “gram negative". Keep in mind that the beneficial bacteria are gram negative as well. This tells us how each bacteria responds towards certain antibiotics.
Antibiotics against (thick wall) gram positive pathogens prevent the build up and repair of the cell wall which eventually will lead to the cell content leaching out, consequently killing the pathogen. Antibiotics against (thin wall) gram negative attack by interfering with the protein synthesis (metabolic process) therefore eliminate the cells ability to produce food.
Gram positive antibiotics will not have any effect on gram negative bacteria nor will gram negative antibiotics have an effect on gram positive bacteria.
The most common pathogen in the aquarium are the aeromonad species for freshwater and its counterpart vibrionaceae in marine and reefs (Both are gram negative). Aeromonads/vibrionaceae can be responsible for dropsy, abdominal swellings, skin ulcers, red patches, fin and tail rot and pop-eye.
General indicators of bacterial diseases can be deformed frayed fins, open sores, red steaks on fins or along the fish body, grey film on eyes, swollen or bloated belly, lethargic behaviour, loss of appetite etc. Antibiotics come in all forms and shapes - liquid, powder, or tablets. The magnitude of active ingredients multiplies the products to choose from, not just by themselves, but also the variations and combinations
It is essential to determine the disease causing bacteria in order to apply the correct antibiotic. The application dosage and time frame should be followed according to manufacturer’s recommendations.